Frog Glossary O
Ocelli: Dark or light edged circular spots
(like spots found on an ocelot)
Ocular: Referring to the eye. Also an eyepiece or system of lenses such as found on a microscope.
Omnivorous: One who eats both plant and animal material.
Ovovivparous: Reproducing by means of membrane-contained eggs that hatch prior to or at deposition.
Frog Glossary P
Paratoid glands: The toxin-producing shoulder
glands found on toads.
Parthogenic: Able to reproduce without mating.
Pathogen: Usually a medical term, Any micro-organism able to cause a disease. (Viruses, Bacterias, fungi, etc.)
Phalanges: The bones of the toes.
Phenotype: This is the "outward, physical manifestation" of the organism. These are the physical parts, the sum of the atoms, molecules, macromolecules, cells, structures, metabolism, energy utilization, tissues, organs, reflexes and behaviors; anything that is part of the observable structure, function or behavior of a living organism. See also Genotype.
(From Science @ a Distance>.)
Photo-period: A measurement of alloted time used to show something, as when a still photographic series is made to show one how a flower opens and closes. Although it takes hours to do so, a photoperiod shows a limited amount of picture frames so that you can actually 'see' the flower opening or closing.
Phytoplankton Are free floating flora which convert inorganic compounds into complex organic compounds. This process of primary productivity supports the pelagic (that of the sea or oceans) food-chain. Also freshwater phytoplankton, including diatoms, amoebas, and other flora and fauna. A great link for children ages 6-12 to explore more on freshwater phytoplankton is The Microbial Observatory.
Phyllomedusine, Phyllomedusa: Referring to a treefrog of the subfamily "Phyllomedusinae", one of the more commonly called "Monkey frogs" or "Leaf" treefrogs.
Phytothelm:or "phytothelm" breeder. The frogs of these types lay their eggs in treeholes and hollows. Tadpoles live and develop in tree holes.
Planorbid: The Planorbidae represent one of the most important families of freshwater snails. They have a wide distribution and are significant both medically and economically as intermediate hosts for trematode worms. Digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma cause schistosomiasis, a disease that infects 200 million people, and domestic animals throughout the tropics. See also: Cercariae and trematodes.
Platyhelminthe: 3 classes of parasitic worms that affect invetebrates as well as vetebrates. The 2 affecting fish and amphibians include the trematoda, or flukes, and are holozoic ect- or endoparasitic. The cestoda, which are saprozoic endoparasites in vetebrates. Turbellaria are widespread in freshwater, saltwater and one group occurs on land in moist places.
ppm: Parts Per Million. Used as a measuring system for water, soil, etc. Example: 5 ppm chlorine to water would be taken to 1000000 parts water, count the 5 that are chlorine, and the remainder is 1000095. (5 is chlorine, 1000095 is water).
Poikilothermic: Having no internal regulations of body temperature, then often referred to as "cold-blooded", which includes reptiles and amphibians as an example.
Pollywog: A tadpole.
Posterior: Towards the rear of an animal.
Preservative: To preserve a frog or toad that has died, in order to have a necropsy done, place the frog (as soon as possible after death) into a solution of 70% isopropyl alcohol, (in a clean jar) being sure to cover the entire frog. Replace the lid and screw on tightly. Store the jar in a dark, cool, dry place.
Proteus: Proteus species are part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gram-negative bacilli. Proteus infections can be considered a community-acquired infection. Enterobacteriaceae (of which Proteus is a member) and Pseudomonas species are the microorganisms most commonly responsible for gram-negative bacteremia. When these organisms invade the bloodstream, endotoxin, a component of gram-negative bacterial cell walls, apparently triggers a cascade of host inflammatory responses and leads to major detrimental effects. Because Proteus and Pseudomonas organisms are gram-negative bacilli, they can cause gram-negative endotoxin-induced sepsis, resulting in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). SIRS has a mortality rate of 20-50 percent.
Pseudomonas: Pseudomonas are a genus of bacteria that are gram-negative, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. They are strictly aerobic bacteria. Members in this genus cause a variety of infectious diseases.